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18 BC HOLSTEIN NEWS ❆ CHRISTMAS 2020 Caring for Calves
Don’t Let the Stress of Cold Stress Get You Feeling Blue
    Feeding Milk Replacer When Bottle Size Limits Volume per Meal
Grams required per day in order for a 45Kg calf to grow 700+ g/d according to temperature*
150 g/L feeding rate at 6L/d (900g/day powder total)
Increase powder, do not need to increase bottle size (6L)
Increase volume/day, powder concentration too high when fed at 6L/d
*According to NRC 2001 calculations, not accounting for additional factors such as health and exercise.
   5
0
22/17
26/18
24/22
   20
900
915
900
  900
900
 15
900
   10
970
945
900
   1020
995
960
   1075
1050
1010
   -5
1125
1100
1060
   -10
-15
1180
1230
1150
 1200
1110
  1160
   -20
1285
1250
1210
       Amanda Kerr,
Senior Nutritionist, Grober Nutrition Jackson Matschke,
Young Animal Specialist, Grober Nutrition
THERMONEUTRAL ZONE DEFINED
Without correcting for increased energy requirements, cold, damp, and severe weather will reduce calf growth and vitality. Under ideal conditions a calf will be in a thermal neutral zone (TNZ), this is the temperature in which the animal does not need to expend energy in order to heat or cool themselves. For calves less than three weeks of age, when the temperature falls below 20°C (68°F) and for calves older than three weeks when the temperature goes below 10°C (50°F), they will need to start expending energy in order to maintain their body temperature. Energy used for growth is sacrificedtoproduceheat.Thedietneedsto reflect this loss to compensate for the loss of energy to heat production and achieve the goal of doubling birth weight by weaning. Note: Critical temperatures should not be determined just by a thermometer reading – wind chill and dampness also need to be considered.
THREE WINTER FEEDING STRATEGIES
The National Research Council recommends three feeding strategies to combat cold
stress: feed more solids by increasing volume (maintain powder concentration); feed more solids within normal feeding volume (increase powder concentration); or add supplementary fat. Increasing total volume fed per day poses some challenges depending on the feeding system. This method may require an additional meal (labour and time constraint), or different sized buckets or bottles. Increasing the volume however is very practical with automatic feeders. Increasing the concentration of powder being fed to the calf can be a practical way to deliver more energy when labour or bottle size limits meal frequency and/or meal size. However, it is not recommended to feed over 170g/L, and solids should be increased over 2-3 days minimum, with calves always having access to water. Adding extra fat is not recommended on farm, as fat source and quality can vary, cohesive mixing cannot be guaranteed, and typically supplemental fat will not be a 100% fat source. When adding additional fat to milk replacer, the energy density is the only portion of the ration that will be increased, changing the ratio of crude protein to fat. Therefore, it would be recommended at this point to switch to a higher fat milk replacer, maintaining a proper nutritional profile. The table above
illustrates a feeding scenario where the farm uses 3L bottles, and typically feeds twice a day at varying temperatures. Yellow indicates that feeding 6L/d at 150g/L is suitable across varying types of MR; purple indicates that the concentration per litre must increase when only feeding 6L per day; blue represents when more volume (i.e. a third feeding) is needed.
• For a 45kg calf, energy demands are increased by 750 calories per day if the temperature is 0°C.
• Deep bed with straw and replenish frequently to provide a warm and dry, insulative microenvironment.
• Use calf coats for calves under three weeks, or
sick calves, to help lower caloric expenditure.
• Year-round goal: double birth weight by day 56. Pre-weaning is the most efficient period of growth – underfeeding and improper weaning will cost you this advantage.
• Both higher milk volumes and high fat milk replacer can reduce starter intake (initially) but are absolutely necessary to meet growth milestones during thermoregulatory expensive environments (cold, damp, wind). This is easily compensated for with a proper weaning curve.
• Commit to a solid weaning program, which should be over one week as a minimum (or 1 day per Liter of peak milk consumption i.e. 9L/day = 9 day weaning).
 Example of environmental effects on calf growth – a 45Kg calf is receiving 6L (900g) per day of a 22/17 milk replacer, how will (s)he grow?*
15°C
        20°C
720g/d
660g/d
10°C
600g/d
5°C
0°C
    475g/d
-5°C
400g/d
-10°C
340g/d
-15°C
270g/d
-20°C
  530g/d
190g/d
    *According to NRC 2001 calculations, not accounting for additional factors such as health and exercise.
AchieveTM
A NUTRITION FIRST APPROACH FOR YOUR CALF’S POTENTIAL
24/22
HIGH FAT = HIGH ENERGY
AchieveTM milk replacer provides the high fat formula necessary for body temperature regulation during cold winter months
Talk to your DairyCrop team today: Gerry DeGroot 604.819.4139
    Jelle Vogels 604.997.0059 Evan Davidson 604.991.6708
Merry Christmas
& Best wishes for the New Year
 1.800.265.7863 | www.GroberNutrition.com |
  Temperature (°C)





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